Billiger Strom aus der Wüste: Was wurde aus Desertec?
for several years the
desertec project has been planning to produce large amounts of solar energy in africa and import it to europe the idea sounds very sensible at first because there is a lot of sun in the desert and there is also enough unused space the concept was even awarded several prizes, but then all of a sudden he got pretty quiet about the project some of you asked me what happened to it and that's why i did some digging and i can tell so much now we are on
desertec 3.0 what
desertec really had planned and if soon finally we will get solar power from the sahara now we know that and welcome to brainlab jaka 4 let's start on 18th july 2022 at 1pm a new record was set in germany at that time almost 80 percent of the electricity consumed was via covered solar power which was more than 40 gigawatts of this value but normally we are still a long way off, on average renewables account for between 40 and 50 percent of electricity production and if you now look at not just electricity but all energy production ie heating etc. then the value drops to around 15%. we have to use renewables so definitely expand but even then in germany we probably won't produce enough energy because we have much fewer hours of sun and wind than other countries according to a study by the fraunhofer institute we have to import 10 to 30 percent energy to be climate neutral for 20.45 but where there is now there is so much sun ours a lot of space for example in the sahara the basic idea of
desertec actually it is obvious the project that was a kind of hope for green energy supply in europe , but what has become of it now, where is all the solar energy looking Let's start from the beginning, but before that, some other things, that is, next Tuesday 8/31 we will again do a live titer here in which laboratory to starting at 6:00 p.m. the influence of digitization research has the transfer of knowledge and the museum collection and what new possibilities are opened up through new technologies I look at different technologies for digitization in the museum and I will digitize living objects for example there is a unique project there which means that the details are also the so-called path of digitization more than 5000 insects digitized per day, as always, I talk to super interesting experts to whom you can ask your questions live, we also switch live to other leibnitz research museums , the german museum in munich to see the real box there and to the german shipping museum there I was even digitized by frame and myself and there is also a live Christian Leeb you can participate in so set a reminder circle after 6 p.m. -saharan scale solar systems these were technology companies like siemens companies in the financial sector and also the german center for air and space travel with the electricity produced they wanted to cover local electricity demand and 17 percent of electricity demand european the sahara extends over nine million square kilometers and therefore also across many national borders per square meter there are 2200 kilowatt hours of solar radiation in germany in the year, we only get half of that on average, for which all sounds great at first already in 2020 satek wanted to bring large amounts of solar power from the sahara to europe and how we really can't see what that was like at the time but to be honest it wasn't a big surprise.
In 2013, several large investors came out and the utility of the project required to implement the
desertec project was questioned for the first time. in the planned size, if necessary, 50 solar power plants and high-voltage direct current transmission lines with a total capacity of 100 gigawatts will be financed and these costs were simply too high for many involved in these special lines I will return continue to be important for the project, but let's take a closer look at how the electricity should be produced, because solar electricity makes you intuitively think of such photovoltaic systems in
desertec, but the electricity should mainly come from solar thermal power plants, the principle of power w recognize this super simple so you have a row of mirrors and a door and through the mirrors this sunlight is thrown onto the top of the tower and there with the concentrated beam of light the water is heated with this water heated the steam turbine is driven so relatively basic and then there is the electrical power plant which is already in spain near seville for example but there is also another form of solar heat another example would be a semicircular mirror which you may know is the parabolic cylinder and in the middle like this a water pipe or the pipe with other materials For example, they have a higher heat capacity attached and then the heat builds up and it can all be turned into electricity, like with the tower, but why? you rely on solar heat and not photovoltaics the dlr calculated in 2005 that electricity from solar thermal power plants would still be cheaper for decades to come than that from photovoltaics the value of the last 2 thousand was eight cents per kilowatt hour for solar heat and 25 to 30 cents for photovoltaics which was around the time the
desertec idea was becoming more and more concrete and basically solar power plants also have a big one so the advantage is energy, which can be stored in the form of heated water.
For example, in systems, electricity must be consumed directly if there is no battery or other storage system connected in between. The batteries were quite expensive. then and they are still expensive today but in the meantime it has spread so quickly that the prices are high and that is why photovoltaic systems eventually became the cheaper alternative and that of course one problem with the huge project is that he wants to produce as much electricity as possible and also something more law there were other problems like political unrest in north africa, this investment but of 400 billion euros that made it much more risky because probably he will think twice mirror now he has also said the chairman of the
desertec supervisory board that some energy companies did not want to have any competition with fossil fuels and therefore opposed the project not much there now its really hard to say but the idea remains and the idea makes a lot of sense , that is, to produce solar energy in the Sahara and then export it abroad, because of course much more energy can be produced. a with twice the solar radiation. like in germany and much cheaper electricity can be produced with the same technology even we in germany still have potential for solar electricity of course it makes economic sense to import electricity or other forms of energy if it is cheaper and the expansion of wind energy is also subject to political restrictions here due to limited space measures or further stop this social rejection and as I said the fraunhofer institute also assumes that we in Germany will still have to import 10 to 30 percent of the energy in the long term, so actually the
desertec project is great, but how is the current one now? the status of this text actually still exists today two initiatives have been developed from the project under the name of der sold energy and a dacian tec the plan itself remains the same except now supplying the region's exports is no longer a direct priority and yet the area should eventually become a powerhouse for the world energy market, that is to say, first produce electricity for Africa and then export it in the long term, but other companies and countries also have and have the potential to produce green electricity export in desert areas they recognized an example saudi arabia they have developed a planned city which is supposed to be 32 times bigger than new york and a lot of solar energy will be produced there because of this desert location they talk that it will simply come to 1.04 cents per kilowatt hour which is a world record for comparison in germany a kilo oh watt hour costs about 37 euro cents and that's about 40 times more expensive and we all know the trend is likely to go up significantly again of course an export of electricity would also be exciting and that brings us to these special lines because one problem is to transport electricity over thousands of kilometers with the least possible loss and there are two cables that connect morocco and spain and that is also the electricity bridge between the region and europe and these cables are in the strait of gibraltar and that's why it's only about 30 kilometers under water, so the place is perfect, such a short distance across the sea that there are no cables anywhere else, so 700 megawatts can be transmitted 20 26 , then a third cable needs to be added which seems like it would be a lot but if you look at it, with these three cables we only have 2, 1 gigawatt however
desertec has targeted an export of 100 gig awatts which means we would need 142 of these cables for the same performance and that's not very realistic as things stand right now and of course also storage to buffer the fluctuations of these huge amounts of electricity and then the overall it makes sense to feed it into the grid so it's really a complicated thing and very important of course some energy is lost on the long way from the Sahara to Germany which then happens in the form of heat but also for example , in the substations and exactly how much power is lost depends on many factors, but I have a study done by Dr. that found sample calculations and there it turns out that when you transmit ten gigawatts with a high voltage line of 800 kilovolts , about the same as the lines we have here, almost 15 percent of the power is lost in 4000 kilometers in the study evaluation is a reasonable measure, what exciting is now that both satek and the project in saudi arabia are no longer focused so much on exporting electricity, but are actually more focused on hydrogen.
Estimation of how high the demand will be in 2050, that is not even known, but what is known is that in Germany you cannot produce enough hydrogen to meet the needs of industry, the heating sector and also transport, which which means first of all it sounds good to import hydrogen but we come to the great arber germany. It's expected for economic reasons, we continue to import a lot of power, and since we're currently seeing a reliance is only halfway cold, you may of course wonder if we now want to make the first proper reliance on supplying hydrogen from countries like Saudi Arabia. that really called the smartest move example namibia as a democratic country with many uninhabited areas strong wind and too much sun would be a much better alternative in my point of view no matter where everything is done in the end so that the whole is realistic in the implementation and it's not sabotaged in any way or it just doesn't take place or it's just taken away I definitely think it makes sense that I would do it with the people on site cooperating that also means they benefit from better power supply , for example, or there are new jobs and that was used in all these projects.
However, for a long time, the federal government's import plans for 2030 ignored a few more problems, namely logistical problems because there is simply still a lack according to the fraunhofer institute, ships or pipelines simply cannot be done by 2030, which is why some in Researchers consider the focus on imports very critical and assume that this may lead to a supply gap again, which we already have in a very similar climate, which means that it should actually be domestic hydrogen production that needs to expand. massively and for that we need a lot of energy again of course as you can see the issue is really quite complicated and because it is not just about energy production in the sahara it is also about politics, economy, transportation, social aspects. and problem secretly much much more that I haven't listed now I hope you liked this little update on
desertec because like I said you probably get asked about it quite often.
Can I do something about it. and feel free to write your opinion about the
desertec project, do you think? Will it still be implemented? Do you think it is realistic and makes sense? Feel free to write that in the comments until the next stop, but Jacob gets it right.