This Cost $27 Billion Dollars to Build
this is gtt mark iii membrane tank used to store liquefied natural gas or lng during transportation and
this is one of the biggest and most complicated natural resources project in the world the yamal lng with a whopping
cost of 27
Build Located in northwestern Siberia in the Yamalu-Ninets region, which stores 80 percent of Russia's gas reserves, the Yamal LNG is a true engineering marvel, but the real game changer that allowed
this high priced out economically viable is not what you think, oh and you know how projects of
this scale usually tend to go over budget and over deadline.
this is a double, not what you think, as the world turns away from oil and daily commutes to the office. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a transitional step while it remains a fossil fuel and its combustion produces a greenhouse effect. gases is a cleaner alternative because when burned natural gas produces 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal and 30 percent less than natural gas from oil currently supplies about a quarter of energy needs of the world and that proportion is expected to increase in the future the yamal liquefied natural gas plant is located in sebietta russia in the northeastern part of the yamal peninsula in the indigenous language yamal means end of the earth and literally is when the project started in 2012, there was no road or water access to savieta and everything had to be built from scratch,
this included a port terminal, an international airport, the plant itself and all the housing and services that were needed, the massive dredging operations to create a deep draft channel in the new port of sevietta was led by the belgian company d-e-m-e the navigation channel is 970 feet wide 970 feet wide and 50 feet deep but before construction could start there was a major problem the polar knight not the polar knight which lasts about four months out of the year but that still didn't help to see that you can't really
build in the arctic using conventional methods and that's because of the permafrost in the north Temperatures in northwestern Siberia could drop as low as minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit, which permanently freezes the ground as deep as 1,300 feet, but in the summer, the top layer of about six and a half feet deep, called the active layer, would thaw to driving mud. in sebietta you need big wheels another problem with mud is that it's unstable meaning traditional foundations wouldn't work the solution was to
build the whole thing on stilts just for the lng plant it lifts the plant above the ground but other than the cold, heat was also a problem while the plant is running, it would produce heat that could melt the permafrost below, as a result, 28,000 thermosiphon systems had to be activated to re-freeze the base 25 degrees Fahrenheit, the LNG plant in yes it covers 444 acres which is equivalent to 250 football fields 200 wells in the huge Note and Biesco gas field nearby supply the required supply gas to the plant the plant consists of four trains no that kind of train , LNG trains, which are basically liquefaction and purification facilities, that's because for economic transportation of gas, it must be liquefied by refrigeration at less than 258 degrees Fahrenheit, that's the boiling point of methane at atmospheric pressure, but refrigeration reduces the volume of gas by 600 times, allowing for economical transportation.
A typical train consists of a compression area, a propane condenser area, and methane and ethane areas. sections of the plant due to the extreme environment and polar nights the plant couldn't really be built on site so a modular approach was taken with giant sections being made in China and shipped to the site where everything was put together as legos In addition, several LNG storage tanks were built. Storage tanks are big enough. for a boat, maybe even some fishing. The first LNG train was launched on December 8, 2017, which meant the start of commercial operations. The opening ceremony was attended by President Vladimir Putin.
Two more LNG trains were launched the following year, which was actually a year earlier. than planned and you're not going to believe it in the budget, how often do you hear that by the end of 2018 the plant reached a total capacity of 16.5 million tons of LNG per year, but if ahead of schedule and on schedule? budget seems too good to be true wait till you hear
this because yamal lng is located so far north that the liquefaction process in the arctic requires less energy allowing for higher lng production compared to other projects located in southern latitudes with similar equipment, while the nominal capacity of the Yamal liquefied natural gas plant is 16.5 million tons of liquefied natural gas; in practice, that figure is closer to 18.8 million tonnes, 14 percent more than originally anticipated. d all of that is because of the cold weather it's just that it's much easier to cool natural gas when it's already minus 58 degrees fahrenheit outside keep in mind
this mega project is not purely russian yamal lng project is a joint venture owned 50.1 percent by russian novatek 20 by french total 20 by china cnpc and 9.9 percent by chinese silk road fund but what made
this project economically viable was the conveyor arctic natural gas tanker Possibly the biggest technological breakthrough achieved as a result of yamal lng was the development of the new yamamax class of ships the LNG icebreaker ships developed by finnish arctic engineering company Acre these 981 foot long ships can sail in the Arctic all year round and that is because they can independently break ice up to 2.1 meters.
These tankers are assigned the arc 7 classification which is the highest ice class and Among merchant ships in heavy ice conditions, Yamamax-class tankers can travel in the channel behind o one of Russia's nuclear icebreakers The world's first LNG-carrying icebreaker Christophe de Margierie was completed in 2017 and named after him from the general manager of france total i like his mustache reminds me of my ex girlfriend's father's mustache yes two unique design aspects of the tanker include a double acting technology and three azimuth propellers like a double acting ship the aircraft carrier has a bow which is tuned for sailing in open water and thin ice, making the tanker more fuel efficient, but when the ice is thick, it can travel astern, in other words, backwards as its stern is optimized for breaking heavy ice without the need for a dedicated icebreaker, it is worth noting that
this class of ships and the sebietta port terminal were designed in parallel to qu e both be as efficient as possible yamal max class tankers are equipped with three 15 megawatt azipot type propulsion units azipot thrusters allow 360 degree rotation around the vertical axis benefits of such propellers include increased the maneuverability of the ship and the ability of the carriers to travel backward as efficiently as they can travel forward, as you might imagine, would be highly beneficial as a double acting design.
Another important aspect of ship design is the containment system for the cargo while the types of containment differ quite a bit from each other they all serve the same purpose there are three containment systems currently on the market types of membrane tanks moss and spb during transport the lng is kept at -163 degrees celsius at atmospheric pressure in well insulated tanks the yamamax LNG carriers are equipped with a French GTT Mark III membrane containment system which was developed by gas transportation.
This cryogenic membrane technology uses a stainless steel membrane and polyurethane foam insulations that minimize evaporation.
Evaporation occurs when the liquefied gas inside the tank evaporates and forms a substance known as boiling gas,
this gas must be removed in order for the tank to remain at a constant pressure, but you don't want to waste it for
this reason, many LNG tankers , including the yamal max, use evaporation as a source of energy for propulsion. In fact, the ship is mainly powered by LNG evaporation, if more gas is needed, it can be forcibly generated by heating the tank, of course, when the tanks are empty, the ship can be powered by traditional diesel fuel in full.
building built 15 LNG icebreaker ships in South Korea, each ship can carry 172,600 cubic meters of The
build the 15 ships as part of the Yaml Lng project was 4.8
billion or $320 million per ship, as they probably You already realized that the need for icebreaking tankers is that the sea lane along the Arctic ocean is free of ice. For just two months of the year, when traveling from Sebieta, the ships can take one of two paths: tankers delivering LNG to Europe will take the Northeast Passage and they do so year-round when tankers delivering fuel to Asia they will travel east through the northern sea route to the bering strait the advantage of the northern sea route is that ships can get to asia twice as fast in just 15 days and that compares to the more traditional routes through the Northeast Passage and the Suez Canal, the downside is that during the winter the ice can become too thick for LNG tankers to use the Northern Sea Route, although it may still be possible with the help of a nuclear icebreaker and a convoy of tankers alternately following it during the winter months. destination cargo would have to take a longer 30 day route it was originally estimated that the northern sea route would only be a viable route from may to november but in january 2021 with a little help from mother nature the carrier Russian LNG christophe de margierie completed the first round trip at a speed of nine and a half knots along the northern sea route from the Kara Sea to China.
This proved that year-round navigation is possible without aid. of an icebreaker we must take into account that the speed depends on the thickness of the ice if the ice is one and a half meters thick the ship can go back at a speed of five and a half knots in open water the speed can be as high as 19 one and a half knots another thing to keep in mind is that gas fields produce gas at a constant rate but transportation is much slower in winter that's why more ships are needed during winter months but in summer it can be used sailing slow to save fuel so excess ships can travel slower at lower
cost whereas tankers were designed for both icebreaking and open water having an icebreaker sailing in open water is wasteful so For
this reason, Russia is
building two transshipment hubs, one at each end of the shipping lane where Arctic carriers transfer cargo to conventional LNG carriers. or it will allow Arctic shippers to be the most effective at what they do best to break the ice and reduce
costs, but what about the future?
Russia plans to quadruple LNG production in the Yamal region by 2030. The planned OBE LNG development is underway and the Arctic LNG-2 plant is under construction and is arguably an even bigger and crazier mega project than yamal lng arctic lng2 and lng-3 plants are also being proposed rail connection is also under construction six second generation icebreaking LNG carriers are currently under construction plus newer carriers design focuses on more icebreaking capabilities and winter throughput on the Northern Sea Route
this will be achieved with the compromise of lower efficiency in open ground waters in total up to 42 new LNG carriers will be required for icebreakers if all proposed LNG plants are built it is a big amount of gas being transported, but until solar power or other clean energy sources become more viable, natural gas would be a great engagement, check out our patreon page if you're considering supporting our channel