This Cost $27 Billion Dollars to Build
This is a GTT Mark III membrane tank used to store liquefied natural gas or LNG during transportation and
this is one of the largest and most complicated commodity projects in the world, the Yamal LNG with a whopping $27
cost in northwestern Siberia in the region yamalu-ninets, home to 80 percent of russia's gas reserves, the yamal lng is a true engineering marvel, but the real game-changer that has allowed
this high price point to be commercially viable is not what you think, oh and you know how projects of
this size usually tend to run over budget and over schedule.
this is a double whammy, not what you are thinking as the world is turning away from oil and the office commute is increasingly seen as a temporary step while it is still a fossil fuel and its combustion produces greenhouse gases is a cleaner alternative, because burning natural gas currently produces 45 percent less carbon dioxide than coal and 30 percent less than natural gas, accounting for about a quarter of the world's energy needs, and that proportion is expected to increase in the future when the project began in 2012, there was no road or water access to Savieta and everything had to be built from scratch.
This included a seaport terminal, an international airport, the facility itself and all the housing and amenities needed for the massive dredging work to create a Draft channel into the new port of Sevietta was undertaken by Belgian firm d-e-m-e. The shipping canal is 970 feet wide, 970 feet wide and 50 feet deep, but before construction could begin there was one major problem, the Polar Knights, not the Polar Knights, which lasts about four months a year, but still has It didn't help to see that you can't really
build in the Arctic using conventional methods, and that's because of permafrost in the n Temperatures in Northwest Siberia could drop as low as minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit, permanently damaging the ground to a depth of 1300 feet freezes, but in the summer the top layer, which is about six and a half feet deep and is called the active layer, would thaw and turn to mud. you need big wheels to ride in sebietta.
Another problem with the mud is that it's unstable is, meaning a traditional foundation wouldn't work the solution was to
build everything on piles, for the lng rig alone lifts the rig off the ground, but apart from the cold, the heat was also a problem, while the plant was operating it would generate heat that could melt the underlying permafrost, so 28,000 thermosiphon systems had to be deployed to refreeze the primary foundation to 25 degrees Fahrenheit the length -plant itself covers 444 acres, which is equivalent to 250 football pitches gas to plant the plant consists of four trains no, not that kind of trains the lng trains, which are basically liquefaction and purification plants, because for the economical transport of gas it has to Cooling below 258 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the boiling point, liquefies methane at atmospheric pressure, but cooling shrinks the gas volume by 600 times, making it economical to ship.
A typical train consists of a compression section, a propane condenser section, and methane and ethane sections Parts of the plant Due to the extreme environmental conditions and polar nights, the plant could not really be built on site, so a modular approach was taken instead, with huge parts in china made and delivered to the place everything was assembled like lego in addition several lng storage tanks were built the storage tanks are big enough for a boat quite maybe even some fishing the first lng train was launched on december 8th 2017 what the start of commercial operations meant the opening ceremony was attended by president vladimir putin two more lng trains were launched the following year which was actually a year ahead of schedule and you won't believe the budget how often you hear that so that the plant reached a full plant capacity of 16.5 million tons of LNG per year at the end of 2018 has but if she is ahead of schedule and on budget seems too good to be true wait till you hear
this as Yamal LNG is so far north that the arctic liquefaction process requires less energy what higher LNG production capacity compared to other projects in southern latitudes with similar equipment while maintaining the nameplate capacity of the Yamal Lng plant is 16.5 million tons of LNG, in practice
this figure is closer to 18.8 million tons, 14 percent more than originally expected d that's all because of the cold climate it's just that it's much easier to cool natural gas when it's already minus 58 degrees outside. keep in mind
this mega project is not purely russian the yamal lng project is a joint venture owned 50.1 percent by russian novatek 20 by france's total 20 by china's cnpc and 9.9 percent by the chinese silk road fund , but what made
this project commercially viable was the arctic lng carrier new yamamax ship class the icebreaker lng carriers developed by the finnish acre arctic engineering company these 981 foot long ships can navigate the arctic all year round, and that is because they can independently break ice of up to 2.1 meters these tankers are assigned arc 7 classification
This is the highest ice class among merchant ships.
In severe ice conditions, the Yamamax class tankers can sail in the channel behind o one of russia's nuclear icebreakers the world's first lng icebreaker carrier christophe de margierie was completed in 2017 and was named after the ceo of france's totally i like his mustache he reminds me of the mustache of my ex-girlfriend's father yes two unique design aspects of the tanker include a double-acting technology and three azimuth propellers as a double-acting ship the carrier has a bow adapted for navigating open water and thin ice, making the tanker more fuel efficient will, but if the ice is thick, he can drive with the stern, i.
H. backwards since her stern is optimized to break heavy ice without the need for a dedicated icebreaker, it should be noted that
this class of ship and the sebietta port terminal were designed in parallel to make both as efficient as possible. the yamal max class tankers are equipped with three 15 megawatt azipot propulsion units The azipot propulsion units allow 360 degree rotation around the vertical axis. The benefits of such propellers include improved ship maneuverability and the ability of the carriers to reverse as efficiently as they can forward, as you can imagine.
This would be very beneficial as a double acting design Another important aspect of ship design is the cargo containment system Containment types are quite different from each other They all serve the same purpose There are currently three containment systems on the market LNG tankers are with one French GTT Mark III membrane containment system designed for gas transport.
This cryogenic membrane technology uses a stainless steel membrane and polyuthrane foam insulation that minimizes boil off. Boil off occurs when the liquified gas in the tank vaporizes forming a substance known as boiling gas.
This gas needs to be removed to get into the tank to keep it at a constant pressure, but you don't want to waste it. Because of
this, many LNG tankers, including Yamal Max, use decoction as an energy source for propulsion. In fact, the ship is mainly powered by the boiling of LNG, if more exhaust gas is needed, it can be forcibly generated by heating the tank of course, when the tank is empty, the ship can be powered by conventional diesel.
A total of 15 icebreaker LNG carriers were built by Devo Ship
building in seoul south korea built each ship can carry 172 600 cubic meters The
building the 15 ships under the Yaml-Lng project was 4.8
billion or $320 million per ship, as you probably already figured out that the icebreaker-Lng -Tankers are needed for the sea route along the Arctic Ocean to be ice-free only two months a year, when traveling from Sebieta the ships can take one of two routes. Tankers delivering LNG to Europe use the Northeast Passage and they do so all year round when delivering fuel to Asian tankers EL via the Northern Sea Route east to the Bering Strait The advantage of the Northern Sea Route is that the ships in just 15 days can get to asia twice as fast compared to the more traditional routes via the north east passage and the suez the downside is that in winter the ice can become too thick for the lng tankers to use the northern sea route, although with With the help of a nuclear icebreaker and a convoy of tankers alternatively following in the winter months, the Asia-bound cargo could still be possible to take a longer route of 30 days.
It was originally estimated that the northern sea route would only be a viable route from May to November, but in January 2021, with a little help from Mother Nature, Russian LNG shipper Christophe de Margierie completed the first round trip at a speed of nine and a half knots along the northern sea route from the kara sea to china, proving that year-round unaided navigation is possible with an icebreaker, we should note that the speed depends on the thickness of the ice. When the ice is five feet thick, the ship can reverse in open water at a speed of five and a half knots, the speed can be the same At 19.5 knots, another thing to consider is that gas fields are producing gas at a constant rate, but transport in winter is much slower, which is why you need more ships in the winter months, but in summer you can use slow steaming to save fuel, so the surplus ships can travel slower and cheaper, while the tankers both for breaking designed for ice as well as open water, having an icebreaker operating in open water is wasteful offloading cargo onto conventional LNG carriers.
This will allow arctic carriers to break the ice and reduce
costs, which they are am can do most effectively, but what about the future? Russia plans to quadruple LNG production in the Yamal region by 2030. The OBE LNG planned development is underway and the Arctic LNG-2 plant is under construction and is arguably an even bigger and crazier mega-project than the Yamal LNG arctic lng2 and lng-3 plants also proposed A rail link will also be built. Six more second-generation LNG icebreakers are currently under construction. The design of the newer carriers focuses on more ice-breaking capability and winter performance on the northern sea route.
This is achieved at the trade-off of lower outdoor efficiency Up to 42 new icebreaker LNG carriers will be needed in total if all proposed LNG plants are built, which will carry a lot of gas, but until solar power or other clean energy sources become more viable, natural gas would be a great compromise. Check out our Patreon page if you're considering supporting our channel