Wie man traditionell vom Baum zum Brett kommt | SWR Handwerkskunst
(birds chirping) How did you used to fell and process a tree? How were beams and boards made when there were no machines? With ax... wedge... and plane. And with techniques that not many carpenters can master today. (rustling) You should look for books. - Exactly. In the forest near Härtlingen in the Westerwald. The carpenters Jan Vockel and Mathias Gläser want to fell a tree. That looks good. (Birds chirping) Over there it falls off nicely too. It should be this ash tree. The big advantage of having carpenters choose the trees themselves is that they know in advance what they are going to do with the tree.
And make a better choice of wood. Walking through the forest for an hour and choosing a tree takes a lot less effort than pruning the wrongly grown tree afterwards. The two craftsmen are not usually out in the forest looking for trees to cut down. They do it for this film. To demonstrate how much time and effort it used to take to make building materials. We are now looking for the right tree. For the squared timber that we want to saw later. See how it's grown, if it's just enough, if it's the right measurements. Whether the bug has knots, twisted growth.
They have sharpened their cutting tools well. It's spring. Exactly in the time in which trees may be felled. First they make a notch in the trunk. It should be about 30 centimeters deep. Swipe and swipe dozens of times. With a chainsaw, the job would be done in minutes. But they only have their axes and their muscles. Everyone does their punches... themselves, you know? Then you have the feeling that we will change something. But everyone has their own notch. You need good technique, good physical condition and a good tree. The choice of wood plays a major role. Because not only felling is exhausting, everything else that comes now is at least as exhausting. (cheating) The axes are... double-edged axes.
This is a felling ax from Sweden. The advantage is that it is ground... differently. Hm... One side is cut a little flatter, that cuts very well. The other side is a bit steeper and tends to split. And that's why... they're well suited to do something like that. Important for this area is that they are extremely sharp. They take turns. And hew the trunk from different angles. You have to go a little further to yourself. It is hit horizontally to separate the fiber. And then it is hammered in at an angle from above, creating a wedge-shaped opening.
That the tree can later tip into the wedge-shaped opening. In real life, the two are not only carpenters, but also restorers in the trade. Usually they work on historic buildings. The trainee watches in the background. After half an hour of hard work, the notch is deep enough. It's now about a third. - Should fit, yes. Maybe take a look. The direction. In depth that would be pretty good. Sure, there were no plastic helmets 200 years ago, but safety comes first. The next tool comes in order - a five-foot saw. A so-called drum saw, as used by forest workers in the past. "Trumm" stands for the cut end of a tree trunk.
The operation of the jigsaw needs to be learned. Everyone takes turns. It's not bumped. So I pull the saw towards me, and then he pulls it back towards him. So we work our way into the cut in a slightly oscillating manner. Until the invention of the chainsaw, this was the everyday life of forest workers. But the tenon saw already had sophisticated technology. There are many different types of teeth. It's actually more of a saw now... for finer cuts. The saw is sharpened on both sides. And then the tooth swung once to the right and once to the left.
And it's sanded right-left too. Tilted means that a tooth is bent over there and the tooth is bent over to the other side. So that the cut is wider than the blade itself. Otherwise it would get stuck. That was it for now with the historical work. The carpenters are not allowed to fell the tree completely. A forest ranger takes care of this for safety reasons. (Snatches of conversation) The 30 meter high ash tree is felled professionally and in a contemporary manner. (Engine rattles) (Hammering) (Creaking) (Quiet scraps of conversation) Now Mathias Gläser and his men are allowed to take over again.
And the further processing of the giant tree is under the motto: Back to the past. Apprentice Luke Piplies is helping out now. Look, I made it extra red here. So, it's important... that we first... just pull, not push, right? I'm just stopping here now so the saw can't jump out. Now you can take both hands at the same time. We can saw with both hands here. Pull something down. You want to cut the trunk into pieces about ten feet long. The carpenters use the drum saw again for this. (Laughter) First, they cut down to the middle of the trunk.
For Jan Vockel, too, this is anything but everyday life. That's also the beauty of it. That earns you a little more... Respect for the building material. Until now? Then they want to flip the trunk. This is a turning hook. It is suitable for turning logs. Because actually... a trunk is similar to a wheel. It's usually assumed to dig into the bark here. There, with those teeth. And because there is a joint, the diameter of the trunk doesn't matter. I'm good at working with my body weight. Sometimes it's not quite so controlled. But when I'm working with bodyweight, I can use all my weight.
And second, hop! But even that is sometimes not enough. Too simple. - Too simple. Slowly, we have to change. jump! You try to push it too. Then it works. (creaks) Make sure you cut it right, Luke. Is he still? You cannot saw through the trunk in one step, otherwise the saw blade would jam. Then back to the saw. And from. Jan Vockel and apprentice Lukas are again sawing from the top to the middle of the trunk. that to. No, but I can't get any lower. Jan has to go deeper. Then they are done. yup The work in the forest is over. (rumble) (snatches of conversation) It's been a few weeks since the ash tree was felled.
The around three meter long parts of the trunk were transported to the property of master carpenter Mathias Gläser. This time they want to cut down the tree trunks. To do this, they must first be rolled onto a trestle. (clacking, creaking) The trunk is to become a beam. There are many different ways to get from round timber to squared timber. There's one on the hump. And then there's the fact that you do it on the floor. But then I have another tool. Then I have a cutting ax with a longer handle than the axes we have.
And here on the trestles you have the disadvantage that you have to roll the heavy logs onto the trestles. And the advantage is that when trimming later, especially when it's time for the finish, I can work well past the wood. Now the trunk is fixed in principle. So you... So he can't move the first time you edit. Here, with such ... brackets. (Quiet snippets of conversation) Then we'll do a little calculation. Here I put it in the middle. From the... About the tribe. So now I take a lot. So. Lot was very early. So it's... Because gravity has been around for a long time. (birds chirping) And then we mark the left and right of the perpendicular.
With the scribing square, I can make a perpendicular line to the plumb line. They do this on both sides of the trunk, the so-called braid ends. The areas are not the same size because the trunk diameter of the tree tapers towards the top. Important preliminary work. Because the bar should be as large as possible. In principle, I have the perpendicular with the marking angle ... it is then entered here at right angles. And then measured parallel downwards. Mathias Gläser has now determined exactly where the beam edges should be. (birds chirping) Are you done? - No. This is where they first peel the bark.
Like an ax in the back. Hm? I'll get a string. We'll string it again a bit. So that we can see our direction. Ah okay. The so-called line stroke: an old technique to draw a straight line. (Quiet scraps of conversation) The cord is basically a cord that was originally dusted with soot. Then you can stretch the cord along it. Then you can slide along to form a straight line. It's the straight line between the opposite edges of the beam. You will repeat the stroke three more times later. For each of the four edges of the beam. (rumble) Then it gets tiring again.
The two carpenters begin to hew the trunk. First they cut notches in the trunk about 30 centimeters apart. Everything about the earlier woodworking is extremely tiring. We don't have the routine for it, it's clear that there is an easier way. I have a book that says the hewer here took six minutes per meter of page. To beat the plan And then you can see how long it takes us. But why cut the trunk, they couldn't do it with a saw? We still do the historical sawing. Then you see that this is ultimately more strenuous. Because then I have to move the wood a lot more.
I either need to move it onto the sawhorse or I need to have a trough so I can cut. And that's often the case with historical buildings, when you look at them, four sides stack up. And then another cut. This trunk is also to be sawed lengthways later. But the two craftsmen are far from that far. They have changed their position when hewn so that the indentations are about the same depth over the entire length. It's a hot summer day. So. Uh, water. It's rather top-heavy. It's not that hard, but you can tell, right? The notches are carved on one side of the trunk.
Now it's time to trim the curves. The tool has a relatively long handle. That gives you more power. But of course you have to be a lot better at ... having a good grip on the tool even with a long handle. And that's why it's basically just rough work... The broad ax is then used to clean up afterwards. In the past, this work was often done by lumberjacks. There was the profession of the hewer. They usually came from the lower peasant class. Day laborers who toiled in piecework. As said, ash is also a bit more difficult to work with than oak.
Now a broad ax is used. Calls itself Behaubeil. - There is a left and a right. In which the cutting edge is offset accordingly. Depending on which side of the tree you are working on. If I have the tree on my right, I'll take the right hatchet. It is bent away so that I can stand next to the tree. And have the ridge straight on the tree. And can hit with it... clean. Now they have to be careful not to take away more wood than necessary. Mathias Gläser uses a different hatchet than Jan Vockel. This has a much wider blade.
This makes walking along the forest easier. The downside is that it doesn't have quite as... good cutting action. Like a narrower blade. But you have more... a guide. The wood of the ash has different colors. The sapwood area is lighter. The core is basically the part of the wood that... no longer contains living cells, but is real wood. And in the sapwood area, we have... more living cells and more wood. Or shall we say, also more nutrients. Which in turn is a better breeding ground for wood-destroying insects and fungi. Which now makes a moderate difference with the ash, but with other colored heartwoods...like oak, douglas, larch, pine...there is a huge...quality difference in terms of resistance to insects and fungi if I use Hab sapwood or heartwood area.
It's not everyday life for the two of them. However, because as restorers they still master the old techniques in the craft, they sometimes demonstrate them to trainees. Mathias Gläser knew early on which profession he wanted to pursue. I actually knew when I was ten or eleven that I wanted to do something with building. And preferably with wood. When I was 13, I did an internship in a carpentry workshop. I liked that very much. It's just like that ... in construction, in the main construction trade, many hours of work have to be done. And as a young person, at 14, 15 ... if you always work while it's light, then I briefly considered hanging up the carpenter.
And go into industry. But my wise father... said it was probably just a phase, I should please do it for another half a year. And if I still think that's stupid, he would support me in my search for a new apprenticeship. But after half a year everything was fine. I enjoyed the work more. Yeah, then I've always liked something here with this historical thing. Worked very traditionally. The second side of the beam is almost done. Some of the results are not exact. That alone, you could say, is a mistake we made. That we cut the notch too deep.
But it often occurred in historical woodworking. And... something like that, you can tell the wood is hand hewn. Since the notch was hammered in here, the surface was then prepared. The next line hit shows that the trunk is not quite straight, but slightly curved. You could use the piece of wood as a brace in a frame house. And because the trunk only has a slight curvature and that gives, we basically have an elevation of eight centimeters that we can bring in there. Then it gets a kink in the upper third. And in a later one