Wie man traditionell vom Baum zum Brett kommt | SWR Handwerkskunst
(Birds singing) How did you cut down a tree and process it in the past? When there were no machines, how were beams and boards made? With axe... wedge... and plane. And with techniques that not many carpenters can master today. (whisper) You should look for books. - Exactly. In the forest near Härtlingen in the Westerwald. The carpenters Jan Vockel and Mathias Gläser want to fell a tree. That looks nice. (Birds singing) It also goes down very well there. It should be this ash tree. The great advantage when carpenters choose trees themselves is that they know in advance what they are going to do with the tree.
And make a better choice of wood. It takes much less effort to walk through the woods for an hour and pick out a tree than it does to prune the stunted tree afterwards. The two artisans don't usually wander through the woods looking for trees to cut down. They're doing it for this movie. To demonstrate how much time and effort it took to produce building materials. Now we are looking for the correct tree. For the squared wood that we want to cut later. See how it has grown, whether it is straight enough, whether it has the right dimensions.
If the bug has knots, crooked growth. They have sharpened their cutting tools well. It's Spring. Just within the time that the trees can be felled. First they make a notch in the trunk. It should be about 30 centimeters deep. Swipe and tap dozens of times. With a chainsaw, the job would be done in a few minutes. But they only have their axes and their strength. Everybody hits...themselves, you know? So you have more of a feeling that we are going to make a change. But that everyone has their own notch. You need good technique, good physical condition and a good tree.
The choice of wood plays a very important role. Because not only logging is exhausting, everything else that comes now is at least as exhausting. (Cheating) Axes are... double-edged axes. This is a felling ax from Sweden. The advantage is that it is... sanded differently. Um... One side is cut a little flatter, it cuts nicely. The other side is a bit steeper, tends to split. And therefore... they are well prepared to do something like that. It's important for this area here that they be extremely sharp. They take turns. And cut the trunk from different angles. You have to go a little beyond yourself.
It is struck horizontally to separate the fiber. And then it is hammered at an angle from above to create a wedge-shaped opening. That the tree can later be tipped into the wedge-shaped opening. In real life, the two are not only carpenters, but also restorers in the trade. They usually work in historic buildings. The trainee is looking in the background. After half an hour of hard work, the notch is deep enough. It's about a third now. - It should fit, yes. Maybe you look at it a bit. The direction. In depth, that would be pretty cool. Sure, 200 years ago there were no plastic helmets, but safety comes first.
The next tool comes in turn - a one and a half meter saw. The so-called drum saw, as used by forest workers in the past. "Trumm" represents the cut end of a tree trunk. It is necessary to learn how to operate the framing saw. They all take turns. It's not hit. So I pull the saw towards me and then he pulls it towards him. So we made our way to the cut in a slightly rocking fashion. Until the invention of the chainsaw, this was the daily life of forestry workers. But the stump saw already had sophisticated technology.
There are many different types of teeth. It's actually more of a saw now...for finer cuts. The saw is sharp on both sides. And then the tooth always rotated once to the right side and once to the left side. And it also sands from right to left. Pivoted means that one tooth is bent that way and the tooth is bent the other way. So that the cut is wider than the sheet itself. Otherwise it would get stuck. That was all for the moment with the historical work. Woodpeckers cannot cut down the tree completely. A ranger takes care of that for security reasons. (Snippets of conversation) The 30 meter high ash tree is being felled in a professional and contemporary way. (Engine rattle) (Hammering) (Cracking noises) (Silent conversation pieces) Now Mathias Gläser and his men can take control again.
And the post processing of the giant tree is under the motto: Back to the past. Trainee Luke Piplies is now helping out. Look, I made it extra red here. So, it's important... that first... we just pull, not push, right? I stop here now so the saw can't jump. Now you can take both hands at once. We can saw with both hands here. Go down a bit. They want to cut the trunk into pieces about three meters long. For this, the carpenters again use the drum saw. (Laughter) First, they cut halfway down the trunk. Also for Jan Vockel this is anything but everyday life.
That's also the beauty of it. You earn a little more with that... Respect for the construction material. So far? So they want to turn the trunk around. This is a swivel hook. It is suitable for turning logs. Because actually... a trunk is similar to a wheel. As a general rule, it's supposed to dig into the bark here. There, with these teeth. And since there is a joint, the diameter of the trunk does not really matter. I can work well with my body weight. Sometimes it is not so controlled. But when I'm working with body weight, I can use my full weight.
And two, jump! But even that is sometimes not enough. Too easy. - Too easy. Slow down, we have to change. jump! Try pressing it too. So it works. (creaks) Make sure the cut is up, Luke. It's still there, right? You cannot saw through the log in one pass because the saw blade will bind. Then back to the mountains. And out. Jan Vockel and apprentice Luke are again sawing from the top to the middle of the trunk. The A. No, but I can't go any deeper. Jan has to go deeper. So they are ready. yup The work in the forest is over. (noise) (snippets of conversation) It's been a few weeks since the ash tree was felled.
The approximately three meter long trunk parts were transported to the property of master carpenter Mathias Gläser. This time they want to cut the logs. To do this, they must first be rolled up on an easel. (Crack, crack) The log is going to become a beam. There are many different ways to go from round wood to square wood. There is one in the dollars. And then there's also the fact that you do it on the ground. But then I have another tool. Then I have a carving ax with a longer handle than the axes we have.
And here on the trestles it has the disadvantage that you have to roll the heavy logs on the trestles. And the advantage is that when I'm trimming later, especially when it comes time to finish, I can work well beyond the wood. Now the trunk is fixed in principle. So that you... So that during the first processing... he can no longer move. Here, with such ... brackets. (Silent snippets of conversation) Then we do a little calculating. This is where I put it in the middle. Of the... About the tribe. So, now I'll take a lot. So. Lot was very early.
So it's... Because gravity has been around for a long time. (Birds singing) And then we mark that to the left and right of the plumb line. I can use the writing square to make a right angle crack in the plumb bob. They do this on both sides of the trunk, the so-called braided ends. The areas are not the same size because the diameter of the tree trunk tapers upward. Important groundwork. Because the bar should be as big as possible. In principle, I have the plumb line with the marking angle ... then it is entered here at a right angle.
And then measured parallel down. Mathias Gläser has now determined exactly where the edges of the beam should be. (Birds singing) Are you done? - No. This is exactly where the bark is first removed. Like an ax in the back. Hmm? I'll get a rope. We'll do a little stringing again. So we can see our address. Oh well. The so-called line stroke - an ancient technique for drawing a straight line. (Silent snippets of conversation) The cable is basically a cable that was originally sprayed with soot. Then you can stretch the wire along it. You can then slide to make a straight line.
It is the straight line between the opposite edges of the beam. They will repeat the drawing of the line three more times afterwards. For each of the four edges of the beam. (noise) Then it gets tiring again. The two carpenters begin to hack the log. First they cut notches in the trunk, about 30 centimeters apart. Everything about the above woodworking is extremely exhausting. We do not have the routine for it, it is clear that there is an easier way. I have a book, it says the cutter... needed six minutes per linear foot of page here. To get over the plan And then you can see how long it takes us.
But why cut the log, couldn't they do the job with a saw? We still do the historic sawing. So you see this is ultimately more strenuous. Because then I have to... move the wood a lot more. Either I have to move it on the easel or I have to have a gap to be able to cut. And it's quite often the case with historic buildings, when you look at them, four pages pile up. And then another cut. This log must also be sawn lengthwise later. But the two artisans are far from that. They have changed their position when cut so that the notches are approximately the same depth along the entire length.
It is a hot summer day. So. oh, water It is heavier at the top. It's not that heavy, but it shows, right? Notches are carved into one side of the trunk. Now is the time to trim the curves. The tool has a relatively long handle. That gives you more power. But, of course, you have to be much better at... keeping the tool under control, even with a long handle. And that's why it's basically just hard work... The broad ax is used to clean things up afterwards. In the past, this work was often done by lumberjacks. There was the trade of cutter.
They usually came from the lower peasant class. Day laborers who worked on a piece-rate basis. Like I said, ash is also a bit more difficult to work than oak. Now a broad ax is used. He calls himself Behaubeil. - There is a left and a right. In which the cutting edge is offset accordingly. Depending on which side of the tree you work on. If I have the tree to my right, I'll take the correct axe. Which bends accordingly so that I can stand next to the tree. And have the straight edge on the tree. And you can cut with it... clean.
Now they have to be careful not to remove more firewood than is necessary. Mathias Gläser uses a different ax than Jan Vockel. This has a significantly wider blade. This makes it easier to walk along the length of the wood. The downside is that it doesn't have that... good cutting effect. Like a narrower blade. But you have more... leadership. Ash wood has different colors. The sapwood area is the lightest. The core is basically the part of the wood that... no longer contains living cells, but is actual wood. And in the sapwood area, we have... more living cells and more wood.
Or let's say, also more nutrients. Which in turn is a better breeding ground for wood destroying insects and fungi. Which now makes a moderate difference to ash, but to other colored heartwoods... like oak, Douglas fir, larch, pine... there's a huge... quality difference in strength to insects and fungi, either Use sapwood area or heartwood inhab. It's not everyday life for both of us. But because, as restorers, they still master the old techniques of the trade, they sometimes demonstrate them to students. Mathias Gläser knew from the beginning what profession he wanted to pursue. In fact, he knew from the age of ten or eleven that he wanted to do something with construction.
And preferably with wood. When he was 13 years old, I did an internship in a carpentry shop. I really liked that. It's just that... in construction, in the main construction trade, you have to work long hours. And as a young man, at 14, 15... if you always work as long as it's light, then I briefly thought about hanging the carpenter. And enter the industry. But my wise father... he said it's probably just a phase, he should do it for another six months. And if I still think it's stupid, he would support me in finding new learning. But after half a year everything was fine.
I enjoyed the job more. Yeah, so I've always liked something here with this historical thing. Made in a very traditional way. The second side of the beam is almost finished. Some of the scores are not exact. That in itself, you could say, is a mistake we made. That we cut the notch too deep. But it often happened in historic woodwork. And... something like that, you can tell that the wood is carved by hand. Because the notch was hammered in here, the surface was prepared. The next line stroke shows that the trunk is not quite straight, but slightly curved.
They could use the piece of wood asprop in a half-timbered house. And because the trunk has a slight curvature and gives that, we basically have a three-inch lift that we can take there. Then it is folded in the upper third. And in a subsequent work step, this wood is turned... split in half again with the saw. We have a good image there. But until then they'll need a few more hours of work. Now they are carving the third side of the trunk. The idea that this could become a mainstay was solidified. A strut is first and foremost... a piece of wood that is used in a frame... to absorb the forces of the wind.
If now I have a normal timber frame frame ... normal, without strut, then it is not windproof. So you can move like this. And that's why a prop comes in. It can be completely diagonal. Then you can no longer move it. This is how it would normally be, about 60 degrees. The individual work steps are similar. And each requires strength, stamina and technique from carpenters. In the past, many cutters often worked on several logs at the same time. The wood was not dried before being used as a building material, but was processed immediately after being felled. We can say with certainty that... the historic half-timbered houses were built in the same year the timber was felled.
The wood was always felled in winter. Because wood contains less water. Transported from the forest, straight to the construction site. And there... or on the Behauplatz. There they are added to the appropriate size. It can only be done with fresh wood. Because when the oak wood has dried, for example, we can no longer go in there with the historical tools. This requires modern and hardened tools, which were not really available at the time. The round log has now become a square bar. The two carpenters took about five hours to do it. The next day begins with the preparatory work.
The craftsmen, this time again supported by apprentice Luke Piplies, set up an easel. A very tall one. (Snippets of conversation) First, place both feet. (Hammer blows) Then the beam comes into play, which today they want to cut lengthwise. But first you have to put it in the right position. They mark the middle of the bar with the rope, but what next? There are several holes here. Let's go to this side first and push it up a bit. Then we secure it, lift it up on the other side. We made our way up. - Exactly. Jan Vockel hangs from one end so that the beam on the opposite side becomes a little lighter.
Now I have to... (creaks, groans) Yeah. So. So the lightning is where it should be. (Silent conversation bits) The stallion becomes even more stable thanks to the struts. They want to make the longitudinal cut through the beam with a special tool. This is now a frame saw. You can see that there is a frame around it. But it's basically a replica of a historical image. Because it is tensioned, I can use a thinner saw blade than with a saw where the blade is completely free. The difference in cut is very important. So I looked at the historic sierras.
They are square ground or even possibly negative. So, in principle, bluntly. And I did it here for the teeth. This makes it functional, which can be worked with manual labor. Labor multiplied by three. There's a reason they go down the stairs in pairs. It's like you used two people to bring him down. Because when you pull it down, you remove the chip. In principle, the saw rises empty. And pulled down during chip removal. Everything we do here by hand is exhausting. It doesn't matter, such a rest is always very pleasant. (Snippets of quiet conversation) You can saw up to the ridge beam that the log rests on.
Then they will rebuild. And another saw will be used. The frame now also touches here. The saw hits. If we wanted to keep the saw, we would have to disassemble the entire saw to get it to release the saw blade. Pick up the wood, slide the frame onto the neck. Then reinstall the saw blade on the back. Then we could continue working with the saw. We took a different saw with a different function. We have to push the wood over the neck anyway. the wood comes - stop. The bar must move first. They then insert the blade of a jib saw into the space that has already been cut.
It gets its name from the elongated top handle. Exactly, here it is held with a wedge. The lower handle can be attached to the saw blade in no time at all. (Silent snippets of conversation) So it begins. There are still almost three meters ahead of them. When sawing, they must also be careful not to deviate from the center line. Wood flour is raining. (Quiet snatches of conversation) The carpenter has his hat for such cases. Now the wind blows in my face. They are now halfway there. Carpenters used to work like them. For little pay. Otherwise, hardly anyone would have been able to afford a half-timbered house.
Construction material was more expensive than labor. You reach the second mast of the male. Stop. The saw restarts. The last piece is cut from the outside. Always in the stomach, not pleasant either. It is no longer a meter, but the longer it takes to saw, the more difficult it becomes for the craftsmen. So they finally did it. You are in the middle (Gasping) Jan Vockel separates the last fibers. (creaks) And he shows a mark by which hand-sawn logs can be distinguished. Here the saw triangle shows nicely, which is a typical identifying feature of hand-sawn beams. This is the place that has been cut from both sides and is cracking at the ridge.
This finishes the work on the beam for today, but master carpenter Mathias Gläser shows another ancient technique for splitting wood. He has resolved to split a board from this trunk. It is important that the log breaks almost exactly in half. At the moment it still gives the impression that we are about to arrive. Which would be nice. With the wedges he manages to split the trunk in half. But now comes the most difficult part of the task. The board should be about four centimeters thick. Again many wedges are used, which the carpenter carefully drives into the wood.
Mathias glasses use iron wedges and some beech wood. With iron ones he splits abruptly. The board should be as thick as possible at both ends. Can do it? It would be better if you had 100 percent fiber flow. But the tree has, because... it is not 100 percent straight, it is more sloping, it is possible that in the trunk... the fiber still gives way. It's especially bad when I have a branch. But it looks good here. Because then it could be that it's here instead of ripping very parallel... If I have a centimeter difference there, it would still be very parallel.
It could be that the diagonal goes completely out of direction. According to the craftsman, it is more difficult to split a board made of ash wood than of oak wood. Because ash wood has long fibers and is elastic. But with patience and a lot of wedges, he advances. The wood cracks. In the front we have 50. Here we have 40. If we end up with 35 in the rear...we either have to rework everything accordingly or just use one side, which is often the case. That only one side has a top surface and the other side only has a very rough finish.
But he hasn't separated the board from the trunk yet. The wood can break unfavorably and then you would have to start over. But it works, with skill and a bit of luck. (cracks) We'll get something out of that, definitely. I can only see the work that still needs to be done until it's a board. But that's okay, it's great for ash. The Westerwald Landscape Museum in Hachenburg. Here are half-timbered houses whose wooden components were made hundreds of years ago, as Mathias Gläser's carpenters demonstrate. That's why they came here to finish their historic woodwork. Mathias Gläser removes blows on the table from him.
With a tool that hardly anyone uses today, the so-called flat adze. In northern Germany there are still some who have learned that. But they're older than that, so... We started training early. And now that we're in our 50s and 60s, you can still find someone who can do it. But in new wooden construction, something like that is no longer used. The beam that was cut to length last time is also there. Jan Vockel could not use it as a prop in a half-timbered house as it is here now. To do this, the beam must be further processed.
We're going to cut two dowels here, top and bottom. Then chisel a mortise into a sleeper. And then we want to put the wood joint together. And then see if it fits. Halfway along the grain is sporty. (gasps:) Yeah. The board isn't really flat yet. Follow the next step, again with historical tools. Bank robber calls himself. It has a long runway. Usually he is there to get dressed. So to set something up. After that it's really a plan. Because I want to make a flat table out of it here. If you thought, you would use a robbery bank.
But because it has such a long travel, we often have a lot of areas when we corner where it doesn't work at all. Then we work with the ... scrubber. And that's a round blade. A round knife. With a straight path. The curve then looks down. This gives me a nice stock rally. You can see how much material we have to remove to get a flat surface. It's going to take a while now. While Mathias Gläser begins to plane, the apprentice Luke chisels a shroud in a doorway. The strut pin should fit exactly there. Manual labor that no one could afford today. quite (Hammering) he has been moving the planer for half an hour, but it is far from over.
He will spend more time on his board. Yeah, now I don't know. I would have to add later. I think it's four or five hours here in total. Four, five hours. Once you've done that, you can imagine why in some historic stairs, doors, gates, why everything isn't necessarily 100 percent parallel. But that sometimes something is a little different in width. So you can see that. And the material was not thrown away so quickly. Because there is too much energy in it. But it is progressing. The board is slowly flattening out. Here you can see again that the choice of wood, which we talked about at the beginning, actually plays a very important role.
The better quality I have with my raw material, the less I have to torture myself afterwards. Working every millimeter here requires extreme effort. Therefore, as I said at the beginning, it is better to walk five hours through the forest than to plan five hours. The work on the beam is entering the final phase. Luke Piplies almost carved the shroud. And Jan Vockel has also advanced with the passer. (Hammering) he Brings the spike to the correct size with the axe. His workpiece could be built into a frame like the one right next to it. The strut that we are rebuilding now is modeled on the figure of the strut of this building.
That is, it is one of the curved supports of the support. (Brushing noise) We're going to make a chamfer here so it's easier to insert the pin into the hole later. Traditional crafts. (Silent bits of conversation) And the faucet fits into the hole. But the two wooden parts are still locked. Now we're going to drill a hole here. And then we drive in a wooden nail to secure the connection. Drill the first of the two nail holes that will later hold the sill and strut together. (creaks) Again. Not even hard. Yes. For demonstration purposes, they take the two pieces of wood to an old barn in the landscape museum.
A similar strut is installed on it. I use it attached to the wall. Next to her, they installed the workpiece on which they have been working for several days. Based on the wages of today's craftsmen, a prop would cost around 1,000 euros. The two wooden nails fit. They connect the threshold and the strut. (fragments of conversation) The artisans showed how wood was worked in the past. Not many people share their knowledge and skills anymore. It is important to pass on the knowledge. Why? You can, if you have done it yourself, build a piece of wood with the sweat of your brow, the better you can imagine why our elders repaired something somewhere.
And repaired over and over again. Because it was a lot of work to make a piece of wood like that. The props. Essential for the rigidity of a truss. And the board? Now that's enough plan for the robbery. The rest is done with the long plane. Our ancestors would have found use for such a piece, as a plank for a floor, or as a step. Yes, I would say done. Mathias Gläser and his men did it and showed great skill, how to get from the tree to the board in the traditional way. Did you like this "craft"?
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